Above: Tracie P adds onion to her Carbonara, just another idiosyncratic — and delicious — interpretation of this recipe (the above was one of the dishes in last night’s dinner at our house).
Perhaps more than any other recipe in the Italian gastronomic canon, spaghetti alla carbonara and its origins have perplexed and eluded gastronomers for more than five decades.
Most food historians group the currently and popularly accepted theories of the etymon into three groups: the origin of the dish can be ascribed to 1) coal miners; 2) American soldiers who mixed “bacon and eggs” and pasta after occupying Italy in the post-war era; and 3) Ippolito Cavalcanti, the highly influential nineteenth-century Neapolitan cookery book author, whose landmark 1839 Cucina Teorico-Pratica included a recipe for pasta with eggs and cheese.
There is also a fourth theory that points to the restaurant La Carbonara, opened in 1912 in Rome. According to its website, it was launched by “coal seller” Federico Salomone. But the authors of site do not lay claim to the invention of carbonara nor do they address the linguistic affinity (even though they mention that their carbonara was included in a top-ten classification by the Gambero Rosso).
Origins and historical meaning of the word carbonara
The “coal miner” hypothesis is highly unlikely in my view. Carbonari are not coal miners but rather makers of [wood] charcoal (colliers in archaic English). If we agree that carbonara (the dish) began to appear in industrialized Italy (see below), we also have to take into account that the word carbonaro/a also had a different and more prevalent meaning for Italians at that time. The carbonari were members of a Neapolitan secret revolutionary society (similar to the Free Masons) called the Carboneria. The nineteenth-century group took their name from a fifteenth-century Scottish group of rebels who masked their subversive activities by pretending to be colliers.
In early twentieth-century Italian, alla carbonara meant (by association) in a secretive or subversive fashion. And while there is no doubt that alla carbonara can also be interpreted as relating to coal (also called carbone in Italian), it’s implausible that the dish is related to coal or coal miners. It’s more likely — in my view — that it’s related to charcoal or embers (see my proposed etymology below).
It’s worth noting here that alla carbonara is used as a designation in Sicilian cuisine for dishes using cuttlefish or squid ink. Seppie alla carbonara are cuttlefish that have been cooked in their ink. While pepper is generally accepted as a sine qua non condiment for this dish, few would describe carbonara as black as coal.
“Bacon and egg” hypothesis is improbable (early occurrences of carbonara in Italian literature)
The American soldier hypothesis is also untenable. Although the designation carbonara doesn’t begin to appear in Italian literature and in English-languages guides to Italian and Roman food until the mid-1950s, I have found an occurrence of the term in the Lunga vita di Trilussa (The Long Life of [the great Roman popular poet] Trilussa), published in Rome in 1951, the year after his death. In this hagiographic account of the poet’s “long life,” the author refers to spaghetti alla carbonara as one of Trilussa’s favorite dishes. It’s unlikely (for all the obvious reasons) that the biographer would include a dish that was introduced by American soldiers who arrived in Rome in 1944.
I also found instances of the term in Alberto Moravia’s wonderful short stories Racconti Romani (Roman Tales), first published in 1954, a delicious collection of vignettes of classic Roman characters, including a waiter (“Il pensatore” or “The Thinker”) who gets into a lot of trouble after insulting a rude guest under his breath. (Look for the 1956 translation published by Farrar, Straus and Cudahy [yes, Cudahy].) Again, the fact that the dish is invoked in a portrait of a classic character would seem to indicate that Italians and Romans considered it a typical dish of the Eternal City.
Above: My good friend and client Tony Vallone likes to experiment with his interpretations of traditional dishes, like this carbonara with broccoli raab.
Cavalcanti and the Neapolitan origins of carbonara
None point to Cavalcanti as the inventor of the dish. But many cite his preparation of macaroni “co caso e ova sbattute” (“with cheese and beaten eggs”) as its precursor.
As with any philological endeavor, we need to look at the original text in context to understand its meaning (and its role in understanding the origin of carbonara).
The recipe appears for the first time in the second edition of Cavalcanti’s wildly successful book, in an appendix written not in Italian but Neapolitan. With his treatment of “Cucina casareccia in dialetto napoletano” (“Home Cooking in Neapolitan Dialect”), Cavalcanti created a distinction between the haute cuisine of his milieu and the familiar, popular cuisine of the Neapolitan proletariat. (This fantastic book, btw, is a precursor of the popular cuisine mania that has gripped our imaginations in current era of gastronomic awareness.)
“Co caso e ova sbattute” is literally the last of a long series of simple preparations for macaraoni (short pasta). And it’s worth noting here that it’s also one of the dialectal Cavalcanti’s preparations for peas. In other words, by 1839, we can be certain, pasta with eggs and cheese was a well established dish, especially among the “common” folk.
(For a solid overview of scholarship on carbonara and its origins, see Anthony Buccini’s “On Spaghetti alla Carbonara and Related Dishes of Central and Southern Italy,” in Eggs in Cookery: proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2006, Prospect, 2007; like many food historians, Buccini neglects to address the meaning and usage of carbonaro/a in twentieth-century Italy and he fails to look closely at Cavalcanti’s text.)
Above: In his 1957 guide to “Eating in Italy,” Hammond omits carbonara from the chapter devoted to Rome but includes it in the pan-Italian overview.
Carbonara, a new theory of its origin
In the course of my research to date, the earliest description of carbonara that I have identified is found in Eating in Italy; a pocket guide to Italian food and restaurants by Richard Hammond, published by Scribner in 1957.
In it, he includes carbonara in his shortlist of pan-Italian dishes and omits it from his chapter devoted to Rome.
“[Spaghetti] alla Carbonara: in a sauce made with egg, cheese and bacon, or prosciutto (ham).”
The gloss is significant: not only is it the first known description of the dish (1957) but it also reveals that it was commonly prepared with different types of cured pork (not just bacon or pancetta); and the fact that it is included in the general overview (and omitted from the Roman overview) also gives us an indication that the dish was already popular in other major urban centers in Italy by the mid-1950s.
Above: I’m happy to report that Tracie P’s carbonara appears frequently in our lives.
While I have no solid evidence of this, my philological intuition leads me to believe that the innovation of carbonara was the inclusion of cured pork.
To my knowledge, no gastronomer has made the connection between carbonara and carbonata, a term widely used in Renaissance Italy to denote a type of salt-cured and smoked pork.
And with this post, as we eliminate previously proposed theories for the origin of this dish, I’d like to propose that the designation carbonara could have been inspired by the use of salt-cured pork that had been smoked sotto carboni (by means of [wood] charcoal or embers).
Philology is an inexact and rarely conclusive science. Its name comes from the Greek, a love of language.
Even though we may never find the true origin of the dish, its appearance lies somewhere between Cavalcanti’s macaroni co caso e ova and Trilussa’s spaghetti.
The one thing that I’m certain of is that I love spaghetti alla carbonara as much as I love the history of words.
Wrap your tongue around that! And thanks for reading.
What an awesome article! Thank you so much for posting. It was a fascinating read. In my opinion, spaghetti alla carbonara has been one of the most abused dishes of Italian cuisine, with many restaurants offering a bland cream sauce and bacon smothered over spaghetti. The real thing is so good, but it definitely is worth making it yourself, because I have had horrible, uninspired versions in restaurants…
i really love this pasta but my aunt..she cook only during new year
bcoz the fiilipino almost not like pasta foods
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Great article. Making me hungry for some carbonara. Going to have to share this with our friends in Rome who make the best carbonara I’ve had!
Love it! I’ve made a vegetarian cauliflower carbonara before, omitting the pork aspect altogether. Sacrilege? Maybe. But we vegetarians have to be creative sometimes!
thanks for reading, everyone. I know this was a long one! buon appetito…
Great! Well researched and very readable article!
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look what he says: http://bressanini-lescienze.blogautore.espresso.repubblica.it/2012/12/03/lorigine-della-carbonara-il-commissario-rebaudengo-indaga/
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The true story is actually contained in the comments to the article Hande has linked to, .
I spoke to Enrico Blasi, and he confirmed his encounter, as a 12 year old boy, with the original “carbonaro”, from whom he heard the story of the invention of the dish: a plate of pasta, prepared by the coal seller (who had the stove and fuel to round out his earning with quick meals), to which an American soldier added his K ration breakfast of chopped pork and egg yolk. As Enrico writes, his mother remembers the man’s name as Federico – the very same man, Federico Salomone, is the grandfather of the owner of the current La Carbonara restaurant, and his original coalshop-cum-osteria (named, of course, Il Carbonaro), is described right where Blasi places it, at the corner of vicolo degli Osti and vicolo Montevecchio. The date given, 1912, is when the coal-shop was founded, the Osteria came later – and the pasta alla carbonara only when K Ration met a steaming portion of spaghetti (or rigatoni as it may have been).
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I was told by an Italian chef during my training that carbonara and it’s meaning is relative to the black pepper and it’s similarity to coal or carbon. As for the history I was told of how italian life in the past was not a wealthy one for all and the poorer families were left with few ingredients to arrange into meals pork was abundant and cured in many fashions to preserve it for hard times. They had chickens and therefor eggs , there was always cheese but cream was expensive so traditionally was not included.the traditional recipe i was taught contains , parmesan, egg yolks, black pepper, white wine, Panccetta, garlic, I like to add mushrooms some onions a splash of cream.
I totally agree with the winegetter in his/her condemnation of restaurant spaghetti alla carbonara it largely deserved. I’ve had snooty chefs arguing with me when I a refused to eat a bowl of heavy cream and bacon bits dumped on top of a pile of mushy spaghetti.
Regardless of the origin story, this is a dish that has evolved through a dialogue between Italy and the US. I’m pleased to find most “authoritative” versions eliminate or severely reduce any heavy cream. The magic comes from the combination of high quality guanicale (if you can find it) or pancetta, with the deft tossing of the ingredients at the moment of perfection—warm, aldente spaghetti, with eggs and egg yolks and pecorino-romano.
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Biggest problems I’ve had with almost every Carbonara I’ve eaten outside of Rome: It is not a cream sauce, in fact, it’s not a sauce at all. Also, there should be no butter, as there was last night in the dish at a restaurant that shall go nameless. There should be no olive oil either. The fat should come from the pork, the egg whites (whipped separately), and the egg yolk (applied last).There is a little onion, but garlic will ruin the dish. Please do not approach this dish with anything but Pecorino (not Parmesan) cheese. Too much black pepper will kill the dish as well. But you already probably knew that.
Day Walker, the best Carbonara I’ve ever had was prepared by my colleague from UniSG, Armando Castagno.
I also really like the Carbonara at Cesare al Casaletto and Tavernaccia (Trastevere) in Rome.
Caro Do: While I like my bacon crispy, I’ve always had a problem with crispy on pasta. And yet, I like my pancetta to be fully cooked.To address this I add a little pasta water to the crispy bits to soften them up, before turning off the heat and adding the drained pasta. Another issue that comes up is how to make sure the pasta is not too hot when adding the egg. To accomplish this, I pour the now glistening pasta into a bowl, and toss it as I stir in the whisked egg whites. This lets the heat escape while further coating the pasta with the fat from the egg whites. After 30 seconds or so, the pasta is ready to receive the egg yolks, pecorino and pepper. Incidentally, I’ve heard that the dish was originally probably just pork fat, onion and pecorino. Oh, and for our vegetarian friends, you can replaced the pancetta (or guanciale) with diced and lightly sauteed zucchini.
Egg whites contain zero fat.
Thank you for the correction. In fact, the egg white is a protein (albumin) with almost no fat, according to what I just read. It must be the pasta water, in which it is soluble, as well as the fat from the guanciale that make it so slippery when you add it to the pasta.
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Thanks for the research. I have been interested in Italian food for some time and learning about the history behind it. It makes preparing a meal so much more interesting. Thank you.
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