Dante made the Italian news wire the other day — yes, Dante Alighieri (1265 – 1321; how’s that for a boldface name?), author of La Commedia, an autobiographical and politically charged allegorical poem written in terza rima, or rhymed tercets, divided into three canticles (Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso), in which he recounts his exile from Florence (1302) and his journey through the center of the earth (with Virgil as his guide) to heaven where he is received by his beloved Beatrice, who in turn guides him to the Virgin Mary and his salvation. Earlier this month, only 700 years after the fact, Florence rescinded Dante’s exile, thus allowing for the poet’s remains to be returned to the city on the Arno river. The back story: the Florentines want to wrest the body back from the city of Ravenna, where Dante died and his tomb is a major tourist attraction, most likely because they’d like to see those tourist dollars (and euros) spent at home. (For a concise overview of Dante’s life and work and details of his exile, please do not use Wikipedia; use the excellent Princeton Dante Project and for closer reading of La Commedia, use the Dartmouth Dante Project.)
In the light of this news, I was all the more intrigued by a wine I came across the other day called “Bello Ovile.” The expression il bello ovile (the fair sheepfold) comes from Canto 25 of the Paradiso, and is a metaphorical reference to Dante’s youth in Florence:
Should it ever come to pass that this sacred poem,
to which both Heaven and earth have set their hand
so that it has made me lean for many years,
should overcome the cruelty that locks me out
of the fair sheepfold where I slept as a lamb,
foe of the wolves at war with it,
with another voice then, with another fleece,
shall I return a poet and, at the font
where I was baptized, take the laurel crown.
(Par. 25, 1-9)
Next to his lifelong quest to free the Italian city states from the yoke of papal power and to restore imperial (temporal) power, Dante desired nothing more than a glorious return to Florence and his laureation there, i.e., his crowning with a laurel and recognition as poet laureate (in fact, he never returned). “The font [spring] where I was baptized” refers to the famous Baptistery of San Giovanni (left) that you surely remember from your Renaissance Art History 101 for its gilded doors (and the competition to cast them, won by Ghiberti and lost by Brunelleschi). After he was exiled from Florence, Dante found his first “welcome” and “refuge” in Verona under the protection of the Veronese seigneur Cangrande della Scala. In the Paradiso (17, 70-72), Cacciaguida (his great-great-grandfather) tells Dante:
- You shall find welcome and a first refuge
in the courtesy of the noble Lombard,
the one who bears the sacred bird above the ladder.
In 14th century Italian, Lombard denoted an inhabitant of Northern Italy and the “sacred bird above the ladder” is a reference to Cangrande della Scala’s coat of arms, a ladder (scala) with a black eagle (an imperial symbol) atop. Dante’s son Pietro Alighieri settled and remained in Verona: today, Count Pieralvise Serego Alighieri continues to make wine there, in one of the oldest historically designated vineyards of Valpolicella, Armaron (many believe that the toponym Armaron is the etymon of Amarone; I’m a fan of Alighieri’s Amarone, which he ages in cherry wood).
When Serego decided to buy an estate and begin making wine in Tuscany, he viewed the move — rightly — as a return to his ancestor’s “sheepfold” even though the wine isn’t made anywhere near Florence: it’s made in Montecucco, a wonderful, undiscovered and still undeveloped part of Tuscany, to the west of Montalcino toward the sea, where you’ll find all sorts of artisanal pecorino (sheep’s milk cheese) producers, grape growers, and fantastic norcini or pork butchers (when I was there year before last, I had some amazing head cheese near the village of Paganico).
It will be interesting to see how the fight over Dante’s remains plays out and in the meantime, I’m glad to see that Count Serego decided to use indigenous grapes in his homage to his ancestor Dante: Bello Ovile [BEHL-loh oh-VEE-leh] is made primarily from Sangiovese, with smaller amounts of Canaiolo and Cilliegiolo (it retails for under $20). The wine is done in a modern style, fruit forward, but judiciously enough so that it still expresses the grape variety.
Bello Ovile would have tasted foreign to Dante: in his day, Sangiovese was not considered a grape variety for fine wine and wines were much lighter in color and body. Of Italy’s three “crowns” of the Middle Ages — Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio — Petrarch wrote more and most famously about wine. There’s a famous passage in Dante about Vernaccia and the eels of Lake Bolsena, but I’ll save that morsel for another post.
Some clarification on the title of La Commedia…
Father of the Italian language…
Dante is often called the “father of the Italian language” because the immediately and immensely popular Comedy became one of the primary models for literary Italian and ultimately — together with the Italian writings of Petrarch and Boccaccio — became the basis for the national language of Italy (which first emerged only in the late nineteenth century).
Dante in translation…
The most recent translations have been published by top Dante scholars Robert Durling (Oxford University Press, 1996 ) and Mark Musa (Indiana University Press, 1996 . For readability, I’ve always been a big fan of the translation by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1892-1893). From a purely exegetic point of view, I always prefer Charles Singleton (Princeton University Press, 1970-75). Allen Mandelbaum’s excellent translation (Bantam Books, 1980) is one of the more inspired renderings in my opinion and Robert Pinsky’s “verse translation” of the Inferno (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994) was an interesting experiment in “translation as performance.”
From Dan’s Taqueria to Dante…you are truly a Renaissance man
What do you think of Dorothy Sayers’ version?
I’ve never read it in translation, preferring to slog through it in Italian with the annotations by Grandgent (!) — the copy of the DC that I’ve had for 45 years. For the record, the book of my heart is La vita nuova.
As to Boccaccio, it’s easier to read him in English but so much more satisfying (and racy) in the original. I need a new copy of the Decameron…which edition would be best?
Bravo, Dr. J.
Very nice read, Jeremy, very informative. I had to read the Commedia in high school, one canticle a year, and cannot say that I enjoyed it. Same fate was met by the Eneide and I promessi sposi. I am not sure if they do this any more to students. I am looking forward to reading about the eels of Lake Bolsena.
It’s a very interesting article you have written. I’m sure you would welcome a minor clarification regarding the name Serego Alighieri, which is actually a compound surname. In 1549, Ginevra Alighieri, the last descendant of the poet, continued the family name being married to Marcantonio Serego, member of another noble and powerful family. With the first son, Pieralvise, began the new line of Serego Alighieri. The current Count Serego Alighieri is also named Pieralvise.
Ed, thanks for pointing that out. I’ve corrected the post accordingly.
Now that is a great post! I am in a classics reading mode now and have got around 100 pages left of the Brothers Karamazov and it is great. Looks like I should dig into some Dante soon.
There’s a wonderful analysis of the lines you have quoted, by Andrea Zanzotto, focusing on the sounds effect which surround the word “io”: “bello ovile ov’io dormii agnello” (see the repetition of the sequence “ovi”-“ovi”, and the position of “io”: exactly in the middle of the line). Zanzotto said it was like a desire of regression into the cradle. The repetition of the vowel “i” is like the child’s cry. Suggestive…
Father of the Italian language…
This needs to be corrected or at least clarified. Dante is called the Father of the Italian language because he practically invented it. There was NO Italian language up to when he wrote The Divine Comedy. In Italy, everybody spoke in their own province dialects. Up to the the writing of The Divine Comedy books were written in Latin. Dante even wrote a book complaining about this fact called The Vernacular Eloquentia. Then nobody listened, so he decided to make up a language where all Italians could understand. He took the Florentine dialect as a basis and combined it with different dialects. The end result was The Divine Comedy, the first book ever written in Italian.
Well, Mr Parzen, as Italianist, could explain that Dante wasn’t the first italian writer adn the Divine Comedy wasn’t the first book in Italian Language. Anyway, Dante’s language itself was a sort of dialect, spoken only in Florence. Italian language was ruled after Dante’s masterpiece, but as a matter of fact we have in Italy great poets before Dante. One of those was Cavalcanti, maybe the finest lyrical among Italian poets. The age of birth of italian literary language is tied to Dante just because his use of Italian was “inclusive” adn at the same time made it richer and nobler and expanded the language borders (The Divine Comedy is the italian book which counts the widest number of words).
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